Brinicles are the underwater equivalent of icicles. They form beneath ice when a flow of saline water is introduced to ocean water.
2. Volcanic Lightning
3. Sprites, Elves and Blue Jets
4. Fire Rainbows.
Fire Rainbows are formed by light reflecting from ice crystals in high-level clouds. The halos are so large they often appearparallel to the horizon.
5. White Rainbows.
These rainbows form in fog, rather than rain. The condensation reflects little light, and as a result, the rainbow is made up of very weak colors – like white – rather than the vibrant colors of a traditional rainbow
6. Fire Whirls.
7. Catatumbo Lightning.
At the mouth of the Catatumbo River in Venezuela, a very unique mass of storm clouds swirl, creating the rare spectacle known as Catatumbo lightning. The storm occurs up to 160 nights a year, 10 hours per day and 280 times an hour.
Moonbows are rainbows produced by light reflected off the surface of the moon, rather than the sun. Due to the small amount of light reflected off the moon, moonbows are quite faint.
A glory is an optical phenomenon, similar to a rainbow that resembles a halo. It occurs when light tunnels through air inside rain droplets and emit the light backwards. Yes, that’s as crazy as it sounds.
11. Morning Glory.
12. Lenticular Clouds.
Penitentes are tall, thin blades of hardened snow and ice that form at high altitudes. At such a height, the sun’s rays are able to turn ice into water vapor without melting it first. Some areas randomly turn into vapor more quickly than others, forming depressions in the smooth surface. Over time, they transform into jagged fields which face the same direction as the sun.
Supercells are the rarest and most dangerous type of storms. While they are formed just like other storms, the vertical rotation of their updraft means that they can sustain themselves for far longer.
15. Frost Flowers.
Frost flowers are formed when sap in the stem of plants freezes and expands, cracking the stem. Water then draws through thecracks and freezes upon contact with the air, eventually forming exquisite patterns.
16. Sun Dogs.
17. Mammatus Clouds.
18. Snow Donuts.
19. Belt of Venus.
20. Asperatus Clouds
Asperatus Clouds were only classified in 2009. As a result, we know little about them other than the fact that they look amazing.
Hat tip to my expatriate e-mail pen pal Jack and his friend Marty.