Archive for the ‘Science Fiction’ Category
The Earth has existed for billions of years, and life arose only once. We know that because the DNA of all living creatures, from humans to yeast, is related. For all we know, Earth is the only abode of life in the universe.
Life has existed for hundreds of millions of years, and intelligence life appeared only once. Vision came into existence by means of several different evolutionary paths, but intelligence exists only in creatures with brains. Even if some kind of life exists elsewhere in the universe, Earth may be host to the only intelligent life.
The whole saga of human life may be a brief and unimportant episode in the history of the universe, and human civilization a minor and short-lived part of that.
But that’s not the only possibility. It is possible that the history of human life and civilization on Earth may be the prelude to the spread of life through the universe, a story that would continue for billions of years.
Recent discoveries show hundreds of planets around stars within observation distance. We don’t know how to get to those planets, but we do know how to get to planets within our Solar System, which would be a first step.
The billionaire American entrepreneur Elon Musk, the lesser known Dutch promoter Bas Lansdorp and others have announced their intentions of establishing a human colony on Mars. They want to be real-life versions of science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein’s David Delos Harriman character in The Man Who Sold the Moon. Like Harriman, they seek profits only as a means of sending humanity to the planets and stars.
I am torn between the grandeur of this enterprise and the seemingly hard practical facts. Establishing a permanent human colony on Mars would be infinitely more difficult than, for example, establishing a self-sustaining colony in Antarctica or the Gobi Desert or a domed city at the bottom of the ocean.
Would people go? Many say they would. Could they sustain themselves in an environment so much more unforgiving than anything on Earth? Would there be an economic payback? Would people on Earth commit to supporting them indefinitely?
I don’t know enough to answer these questions, but my gut feeling is “no”. But then again, I agree with Arthur C. Clarke, another science fiction writer, who said that the only way to know the limits of the possible is to venture a little bit into the impossible.
Source: The Great Martian War
Hat tip to Boing Boing.
The Great Martian War is a documentary-style made-for-TV movie that conflates World War One with H.G. Well’s War of the Worlds. I find this trailer (the full movie isn’t available in the USA) to be weirdly fascinating.
The actual World War One was just as fearsome, and just as much of a break with everyday life, as the events in H.G. Wells’ story. But while the actual World War was tragic and unnecessary, a war against extraterrestrial invaders would have been meaningful and glorious.
The Internet’s Original Sin by Ethan Zuckerman for The Atlantic.
The basic problem with the commercial Internet, according to this writer, is the use of advertising to finance Internet services.
Because an individual advertisement on the Internet has little impact, the value of advertising is based on the ability of the firm to target individuals who are interested in this particular product. And the only way to do this is to gather data and use it to profile individuals.
Invasion of privacy is not a bug. It is a necessary feature. The reason it is necessary is that most people would rather give up their privacy than pay for Internet services.
Zuckerman thinks this is the reason that NSA surveillance is no big deal for most Americans. We’re already accustomed to giving up our privacy.
He doesn’t have a good answer as to what to do about all this, and neither do I.
How We Imprison the Poor for Crimes That Haven’t Happened Yet by Hamilton Nolan for Gawker.
The science-fiction movie Minority Report imagined a world in which it was possible to predict when people would commit crimes and to arrest them before the crime occurred. A predictive science of human behavior does not exist, but that does not stop people in authority from acting as if it did.
American courts are increasingly using what’s called “evidence-based sentencing” on which the severity of the sentence is based on a computer algorithm’s determination of the likelihood that the person will commit another crime.
In practice, what this means that that poor youth who grew up in a family without a father will get a worse sentence than a middle-class youth with access to psychiatrists and good job opportunities.
This is contrary to the basic principle of equal justice under law. If you commit a crime, you should be punished for what you did, not for what somebody thinks you may do.
Neil deGrasse Tyson, a science educator whom I admire, laments the loss of interest in the space program, which he equates to a loss of hope in the future. I can understand that. There was a time when I thought that the human future depended on the space program.
My thinking was shaped by reading science fiction in the 1940s and 1950s, and, in particular, Astounding Science Fiction magazine, edited by the visionary John W. Campbell Jr., and the young adult (then called “juvenile”) and Future History novels of Robert A. Heinlein.
While science fiction in those days was varied and imaginative, there was a kind of consensus future which constituted a kind of default setting and shared background for many (not all) SF writers of that day.
The common assumption was that the next stage of human history was the Age of Space, which would be for the Planet Earth as a whole what the Age of Discovery was for Europe. It was to begin with the construction of space stations and expeditions to the Moon, Mars and Venus, which would soon by followed by colonization of these worlds.
The default idea of Mars was a desert planet with frozen canals and an ancient extraterrestrial race with occult powers and secret wisdom. The default idea of Venus was a jungle planet, something like Congo or Amazon basins and something like Earth in the age of the dinosaurs. Mars was an old planet and Venus was a young planet. Other worlds of the Solar System also were thought to be habitable and ripe of human colonization.
The next step was to be discovery of a faster-than-life drive and the spread of humanity through our galaxy. Human beings would the leaders in the formation of a Galactic Federation, much like the Federation in Star Trek. This was to be followed by a Galactic Empire, much like the Empire in Star Wars. The empire would decline and fall, like the Roman Empire, and be followed by an age of chaos and the creation of a new and more advanced civilization.
Humans, not extraterrestrial beings, were to be the leaders and guides. Campbell was a humanity chauvinist; he had a rule that he would not publish a story in which aliens got the better of human beings.
I didn’t exactly believe all of this, but I did anticipate the Age of Space with great hope and curiosity. I thought this age was about to begin with the moon landings in 1969. I did not realize, as I do now, that the moon landings were a stunt, carried out for prestige, to prove that the USA was more advanced than the USSR.
I’ll say this: I felt proud to be a citizen of a nation with the sense of purpose and the capability to decide to do something so difficult, and to carry it out. But the moon landings didn’t lead to anything. What I thought of as a beginning was the high point.
Now hopefulness about the future has migrated to other nations, and we Americans, to the extent that we thing about the future at all, are very rightly concerned about averting catastrophe—economic decline, political collapse, environmental catastrophe, exhaustion of fossil fuels, mutant diseases, global climate change, et very much cetera.
Maybe there will be an Age of Space someday, whether or not the United States is the nation that leads the way. My heart is with Neil deGrasse Tyson. I don’t want to terminate the space program, either. But the younger generation doesn’t see the future in terms of Heinlein’s Space Cadet. Their vision of the future is Hunger Games.
Elizabeth Loftus, the psychologist and memory researcher, has documented a disquieting success in implanting false memories by simply suggesting to a subject that he has experienced a fictitious event.
Such pseudo-events, invented by psychologists, may vary from mildly upsetting or comic incidents that, for example, as a child, one was lost in a mall to more serious incidents that one was the victim of a serious animal attack, or a serious assault by another child.
After initial skepticism “I was never lost in a shopping mall”, and then uncertainty, the subject may move to a conviction so profound that he will continue to insist on the truth of the implanted memory, even after the experimenter confesses that it never happened in the first place.
It is possible to remember things that never happened. It is possible for a skilled psychiatric professional to implant false memories in people.
And now research with rats indicates that it is possible to work on the brain so as to delete—and restore—memories by physical means (but so far only in rats).
As an old guy who is starting to suffer from loss of memory, and whose greatest fear is dementia or Alzheimer’s disease, I think research on memory is a good thing, not a bad thing.
But a world in which memory deletion, memory activation and memory falsification were understood is a science-fiction dystopia. It means that it is technically possible for a future government to exercise totalitarian control over the individual to an extent that Hitler, Stalin and Mao only dreamed of doing.
These far outweigh the possible benefits of these techniques, such as in treating post-traumatic stress syndrome. And even there, I expect that, just as with psychiatric drugs, many therapists would use memory deletion techniques without fully understanding their limitations and wider effects.
How to erase a memory—and restore it: Researchers activate memories in rats in Science Daily. Hat tip to naked capitalism.
Speak, Memory by Oliver Sacks in the New York Review of Books. A report on false memories.
How Memory Speaks by Jerome Groopman in the New York Review of Books. A review of research on the neurological basis of memory.
Johnny Mnemonic by William Gibson. Science fiction.
Pournelle’s Iron Law of Bureaucracy states that in any bureaucratic organization there will be two kinds of people”:
- First, there will be those who are devoted to the goals of the organization. Examples are dedicated classroom teachers in an educational bureaucracy, many of the engineers and launch technicians and scientists at NASA, even some agricultural scientists and advisers in the former Soviet Union collective farming administration.
- Secondly, there will be those dedicated to the organization itself. Examples are many of the administrators in the education system, many professors of education, many teachers union officials, much of the NASA headquarters staff, etc.
The Iron Law states that in every case the second group will gain and keep control of the organization. It will write the rules, and control promotions within the organization .
via Report Template.
This rule of thumb applies equally to government bureaucracies, corporations and other private organizations. I saw a good example of this during the 24 years I worked as a reporter for the Democrat and Chronicle in Rochester, N.Y. Many of us reporters were (or thought we were) dedicated to the profession of journalism, and to the professional goals of good writing, accurate reporting and fearless investigation of wrongdoing. Many people in the business departments of the newspaper resented our indifference to the goals of increasing the newspaper’s circulation and advertising revenue.
This is not a case that we in the newspaper department were righteous and the people in the circulation and advertising departments were not. If people didn’t buy the newspaper, and businesses didn’t advertise in it, we reporters and editors would not have had a means to do our work. You need a balance between both — those devoted to professional excellence and those devoted to making the organization flourish.
Click on Saving Labor From Itself for another example.
Jerry Pournelle is, among other things, a best-selling science-fiction writer.
Click on Chaos Manor for his home page and web log.
More than 50 years before Columbus, the great Chinese admiral Zheng He (aks Cheng Ho) voyaged throughout the Indian Ocean, and down the coast of east Africa. Some historians think he may have reached the Cape of Good Hope. But he had no successors. His voyages were merely a stunt, for the sake of prestige, like the U.S. moon landings.
Some historians have speculated that if the rulers of the Ming dynasty had followed up, there might have been a Chinese age of exploration and discovery, to rival the great European explorers. Zheng He’s fleet was larger, both in numbers and in the size of the individual ships, than anything the European explorers sent out.
I’m not so sure. As James C. Scott wrote in The Art of Not Being Governed, Chinese rulers historically have sought to control large numbers of people, not large areas of territory. I have read a smattering of Chinese philosophy in translation, and it is all about a ruler who is wise and just can increase his wealth and power by encouraging people to migrate to his realm.
In the light of history, this might not have been a bad choice.. The English, French, Spanish and Portuguese spread all over the world, and they have millions of descendents in North and South America and other parts of the world, but this no longer adds to the power of the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese nations.
Today China, which did not seek to rule an overseas empire, is much more powerful than any of these countries. That is not to deny that China is an empire. Just ask the Uighurs (in what used to be called Chinese Turkestan) or the Tibetans. It is that China is a more unified and enduring empire.
China never needed a merchant fleet or overseas outposts to participate in the world economy. Since the days of the Roman Empire, merchants traveled the Silk Road across central Asia to buy Chinese silk, porcelains and other manufactured products.
Spain and Portugal sent out explorers to find routes to China and India so that their merchants could bypass the Muslim countries in between. The Spanish conquistadors were greedy for gold and silver because it was scarce. China and India had favorable balances of trade for centuries and a large fraction of the world’s precious metals ended up in those countries. The Spanish regularly sent out treasure galleons from Mexico to the Philippines to trade with China.
Once upon a time I was a regular watcher of the Doctor Who TV program. I was never a hard-core fan and I lost interest after the Tom Baker era. But I was interested in this trailer for a BBC docu-drama about the show’s 1963 origins.
Click on BBC Two – An Adventure in Space and Time – Clips for more.
Hat tip to Avedon’s Sideshow.